PhD Alum

Dr. Chris K Elvidge (PhD 2007-2013) BSc, GDip (McGill)
Evaluating the long-term effects of sub-lethal acidification on wild populations of juvenile Atlantic salmon.

One of the many environmentally deleterious effects of industrialization is the acidification of freshwater, which results in part from precipitative inputs of anthropogenic pollutants. Considerable effort has been allocated to the study and remediation of severely acidified aquatic systems, with the effects of weak levels of acidification (pH 6 – pH 7) on biological communities having received less attention.  One effect that has been studied is the chemical mediation of predator-prey interactions in freshwater and marine fishes. Following mechanical damage to the epidermis, as would likely occur during a predation event, many taxa release chemical alarm cues which elicit antipredator responses from conspecifics and other opportunistic receivers subject to similar levels of predation risk and potentially enhance the survival of alarm cue receivers during subsequent interactions with predators. Under weakly acidic conditions (pH < 6.6), these chemical alarm cues are rendered non-functional and do not elicit alarm responses from conspecific or heterospecific receivers. Weak acidification effectively deprives prey fishes of one source of chemosensory information on ambient risk levels.

Here, I describe a series of field experiments designed to evaluate the effects of this environmentally-mediated loss of information on wild populations of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in four acidic and five neutral streams in the Miramichi River system, New Brunswick, Canada. Acid-impacted Atlantic salmon in these experiments demonstrated a loss of response to conspecific and heterospecific chemical alarm cues, as well as significantly greater responses to remaining (visual) threat cues than salmon under neutral conditions. Fish in neutral streams appeared to demonstrate additive responses to multiple risky cues consistent with dynamic threat-sensitivity and the sensory complementation hypothesis, whereas fish in acidic streams demonstrated non-threat-sensitive responses consistent with the absence of sensory complementation and greater value being assigned to information received through visual cues. Contrary to predictions, juvenile salmon do not appear to suffer increased mortality through predation as a result of this loss of information, nor do they experience negative growth effects resulting from temporal trade-offs between antipredator and foraging behaviours. Rather, acid-impacted Atlantic salmon demonstrated behavioural compensation through increased preference for complex habitats which offer greater abundance of physical refugia and limit line-of-sight for visually foraging predators, effectively mitigating the increased risk of predation associated with limited information.


Dr. Jae-woo Kim (PhD 2005-2009) BSc, MSc (Concordia)
Behavioural and ecological implications of predation risk in juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

While local predation risk has striking effects on the short term behaviour of prey including juvenile salmonids, the effects of predation risk under natural conditions have rarely been examined. Moreover, how prey integrate multiple cues to assess predation risk remains unclear. In Chapter one, I tested the hypothesis that juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) respond to a combination of chemical and visual predation cues under natural conditions. Both young-of-the-year (0+) and parr (1+) salmon exhibited antipredator responses when exposed to chemical cue. Subsequent exposure to a visual stimulus had contrasting results. While YOY and parr differed in the type and intensity of antipredator responses to both chemical and visual stimuli, perhaps due to differential costs associated with age, both used the chemical and visual information in an additive manner. In Chapter two, I tested the prediction that YOY use chemical alarm cue to assess the long-term perceived predation risk and decide where to settle over a two-week period when YOY emerge from gravel nests and begin defending territories. The density of YOY decreased in risky sites and increased in control sites. However, the density of parr was not affected. Clearly, YOY salmon can assess long-term perceived predation risk and make habitat choice decisions based on the perceived level of risk. In Chapter three, if we assume predation risk as a cost, optimality models predict that territory size will decrease with increasing predation risk. I examined whether both acute and chronic increases in perceived predation risk influence the territorial behaviour of YOY. When exposed to chemical alarm cue, YOY decreased the number of switches between foraging stations, while not changing their territory size and foraging rate. When exposed to chemical alarm cue over two weeks, YOY reduced the size of their territories while not changing their foraging rate and number of switches. Clearly, YOY adjusted their territorial behaviour in response to both acute and chronic increases in perceived predation risk. Taken together, my results suggest that predation risk influences not only short-term (immediate) anti-predator behaviour, but is also important component of habitat selection and territorial behaviour over longer intervals (a period of days to weeks), both of which are important mechanisms of regulating salmonid populations.

Dr. Antoine O.H.C. Leduc (2003-2007) BSc (Rimouski), MSc (Concordia)
Ecological and behavioural implications of ambient acidification on the chemosensory alarm functions in juvenile salmonids.

Alarm cues play important roles allowing prey individuals to act with context appropriate responses, increasing their chance to survive predators.  One such type of alarm cue is chemical in nature and typically released following mechanical damage as would occur during a predation event.  These damaged-released chemical alarm cues are known to mediate local predation risks in many freshwater fish species.  Under acidic conditions however (pH ~6.0), individuals exposed to these chemical cues have been shown to be impaired in their ability to detect these cues and respond with species-typical alarm behaviour.  A single field study was conducted on this phenomenon, examining one fish population under weakly acidic conditions against another population under neutral conditions.  Since strain-dependent tolerance to acidity is known to exist in native salmonid populations, the general ecological relevance of this phenomenon was difficult to assess.  In my first chapter, I conducted field observations in nursery streams ranging in pH from 5.71 to 7.49 on two year-classes (young-of-the-year and parr) of wild juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).  I aimed at assessing if the detection of these chemical alarm cues was dependent on the ambient pH or if variations in the detection occurred between populations regardless of the acidity levels.  Salmon present in any acidified streams did not respond to alarm cues while those in neutral streams exhibited species-typical alarm responses.  Secondly, I conducted experiments to further assess whether population or environmental differences was most likely to explain the loss of response to chemical alarm cues observed under acidic conditions.  Thus, I conducted a reverse transplant experiment between salmon populations found under neutral (pH range ~7.0 – 7.3) and weakly acidic streams (pH range ~5.8 – 6.3).  I later assessed if five different populations of salmon produced chemical alarm cues enabling consistent antipredator behaviour in a receiving population.  My results showed that population differences did not account for the observed difference in alarm response, while ambient acidity was creating a behavioural impediment to normal chemical alarm function.  I then wanted to determine at which pH value the loss of alarm function occurs.  Using juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a laboratory study, my results showed that between 6.4 and 6.2 (pH unit), a steep decrease in alarm behaviour occurred despite the introduction of chemical alarm cues suggesting a graded loss of response with increasing acidity.  In my fourth chapter, I wanted determine if the learning of a novel odour could occur when paired with chemical alarm cues, both under neutral and acidic conditions.  I showed that although it was possible to condition salmon under neutral conditions, no conditioning occurred under acidic conditions.  I finally determined under laboratory conditions if a survival cost from predation exists for juvenile rainbow trout exposed to acidified or neutral alarm cues in the presence of a predatory largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides).  Trout exposed to acidified alarm cues had a significantly shorter survival time when compared to trout exposed to neutral alarm cues.  Altogether, these results suggest that even subtle chemical changes in ambient acidity may interfere with the use of chemical alarm signal in otherwise, pristine conditions. 

MSc Alum

Richard DiRocco MSc (2013-2015) BSc (Lake Superior State University)
Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects.

Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include damage-released alarm cues from conspecifics and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), a promising predator cue found in the urine of mammalian predators. The objectives of this experimental study were: (1) determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA is graded or hypersensitive, (2) determine if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA) and damage-released alarm cue is synergistic or additive. To meet the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream-channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA ranging from 5 × 10-8 to 5 × 10-10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited graded avoidance behaviour in response to PEA. To meet the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA, conspecific damage-released alarm cue, and a combination of the two. Sea lamprey responded to the combination of predator cue and damage-released alarm cue in an additive manner, as the response to the combination of cues did not trigger a significantly greater response than the sum of their separate effects.

Jemma Katwaroo-Andersen MSc (2011-2014) BSc (University of the West Indies)
Influence of reproductive assets on threat-sensitive responses in wild-caught Trinidadian guppies (
Poecilia reticulata).

Accrued reproductive assets in Trinidadian guppies may affect both the cost and benefits associated with anti-predator behaviour and may influence their threat sensitive response pattern. While, the threat sensitive behaviour in Trinidadian guppies has received considerable attention, the influence of reproductive asset on threat sensitive response pattern has received little attention. Hence, I conducted a laboratory study comparing anti-predator behaviour in gravid (high accrued assets) vs. non-gravid (low accrued assets) guppies from both high and low predation risk populations. I predicted that gravid and non-gravid guppies would differ in their response to chemical alarm cues. I found a significant difference in anti-predator response between gravid and non-gravid guppies in the Lower Aripo population (high predation site); gravid guppies exhibited an overall stronger anti-predator response to the same level of ambient predation threat, whilst non-gravid guppies showed weaker responses. However in the Upper Aripo population (low predation site), I found similar response in gravid and non-gravid guppies. The greater anti-predator response observed by gravid guppies in the Lower Aripo population supports the hypothesis that accrued reproductive asset influence threat sensitive response in Trinidadian guppies. Furthermore in this study, the difference in response observed between Lower and Upper Aripo guppy population suggests that long-term predation plays an important role in shaping anti-predator responses to predation risk. The results of this experiment suggest that gravid guppies integrate accumulated reproductive asset, immediate predation risk and long-term predation pressure to make decisions regarding their anti-predator responses.

Patrick Malka MSc (2010-2014) BSc (Concordia)
Foraging and territorial decisions by juvenile Atlantic salmon Salmo salar under chronic predation threat in the wild.

Most animals are at some point in their development required to perform behaviours under the threat of predation. There is a need to trade off behaviours like foraging and territoriality with anti-predator behaviour in order to maximize survival. Recent studies have shown that Atlantic salmon potentially compensate for chronic predation risk by reducing territory size but maintaining the same growth rate. However, no direct measures of foraging or growth were collected. Here, I tested the hypothesis that juvenile Atlantic salmon can adjust behaviours depending on the perceived risk of predation. I conducted trials under semi natural conditions in which the experimental group was exposed to alarm cue and the control group to stream water over two field seasons in 2010 and 2011. Territory size was recorded on Day 1 and Day 7 while foraging was recorded daily for as many individuals as possible. The change in weight between Day 1 and Day 7 was also recorded for every individual. Overall, I found that territory size reduced over the seven day period while foraging and growth did not. There were significant differences in results over the two field seasons. These results suggest a behavioural compensation between territory defense and foraging under the effect of chronic predation. The differences in response by year can be explained by looking at the resources dynamics of each year. Future work could examine this influence further. 

Chris Jackson MSc (2008-2010) BSc (Concordia)
Differences in antipredator behaviour between wild and hatchery-reared juvenile Atlantic salmo.

While the effect of captive breeding on the antipredator behaviour of salmonids has received considerable attention, there has been little research using individuals reared for a short period of time (2 generations or less of captive breeding).  In addition, few studies have tested individuals from the same source population and none under natural conditions.  Hence, I conducted semi-natural field study comparing the antipredator behaviour between wild caught, F1 (offspring of wild caught adults) and F2 (second generation) hatchery-reared juvenile Atlantic salmon (from the same source population) to standardized predation cues.  Wild caught salmon exhibited strong, stereotypic antipredator responses to the predation threat, while F1 and F2 salmon showed weaker responses.  Interestingly, F1 salmon showed slightly stronger responses than F2 salmon. The observation that wild caught and F2 salmon were consistently different supports the hypothesis that even two generations of hatchery rearing is sufficient to select for maladaptive responses to predators under natural conditions.  The observation that F1 salmon were intermediate to wild caught and F2 salmon suggests that individual experience may also play a significant role on the observed lack of stereotypical responses to predation threats under more natural conditions.  Given the current decline of many salmonid populations across North America and the controversy regarding the effectiveness of hatchery programs for conservation use, the results of this study may be useful to determine an appropriate course of action for hatcheries designed for conservation and restoration.

Camille Macnaughton MSc (2006-2009) BSc (Mount Allison)
Chemically mediated learning in juvenile Altantic salmon (Salmo salar); testing the limits of acquired predator recognition under laboratory conditions and in the wild.

Predator avoidance is crucial to the survival of a prey species and the ability to accurately assess local predation risk will consequently be shaped by a suite of cost- benefit trade-offs. In many fishes, including salmonids, predation risks are mediated through the detection of damage- released chemical cues. When detected by nearby conspecifics, covert short-term antipredator responses, in particular, acquired recognition of novel odours, are elicited.  To date, learning association and retention between relevant cues and appropriate antipredator responses occurs in laboratory or semi-natural, trapping studies, as well as limited field work. While these studies have verified that the mechanism of acquired predator recognition does occur under fully natural conditions, further field verification is required to assess the limitations of this learning mechanism. My research focuses on the assessment of predation risk mediated by damage- released alarm chemical cues and in particular, the limitations of chemosensory learning in laboratory-reared populations of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) compared with the fully wild equivalent.  Slight antipredator behavioural responses in the laboratory population are confirmed, but evidence of acquired predator recognition and learning retention is absent. These results suggest that fish respond immediately and covertly to chemical cues, but may treat the information as immaterial or irrelevant without subsequent exposure to chemical cues paired with the predator odour. Moreover, our field results mirror the laboratory findings with the exception that fish initially do not respond to chemical cues. Further work is needed in order to assess the impact of various ecological processes, biotic and physical, on the parameters of learning under laboratory and field conditions.

Meaghan Vavrek, MSc (2005-2007) BSc (University of Alberta)
Disturbance cues in prey fishes: an additional source of chemosensory risk assessment

Chemosensory cues, including disturbance cues, are important indicators of predation risk in aquatic systems. To date, little is known about disturbance cues although they are thought to exist in a variety of fishes and are believed to indicate lower risk as compared to damage-released alarm cues. Previous studies suggest disturbance cues are comprised of a metabolic waste product, likely ammonium, though this has not been directly tested in fish.  For my thesis, I wanted to verify the presence of and characterize the response to disturbance cues in two taxonomically distant species: juvenile convict cichlids (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). I also wanted to test the assumption that the disturbance cue is a metabolic waste product, specifically ammonium.  Both species responded to the disturbance cue in a threat-sensitive manner, which was expected given the low risk nature of the cue. As well, my results suggest ammonium is not likely the major component of the disturbance cue although it may be some type of metabolic waste product. Future work is needed in order to determine the major constituent of the disturbance cue and to further examine its ecological importance.

Mark C. Harvey, MSc (2003-2005) BSc (Concordia)
Effects of social status and food availability on predator avoidance behaviour in YOY rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

Prey animals are often faced with a Hobson’s choice: risk starvation or risk predation. Individuals capable of optimizing this trade-off through the use of context specific predator avoidance behaviour should be at a selective advantage. Food availability and social status have been shown to exert a strong influence on this trade-off, however, it remains unknown if these factors interact (i.e., do dominants and subordinates vary their behavioural decisions based on food availability). The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of food availability and social status, as well as their interaction, on the individual behaviour by young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to perceived predation threats. Pairs of dominants and subordinates were assigned to either low, intermediate or high food availability treatments and exposed to either conspecific alarm cue (predation threat) or distilled water (no threat). The results suggest that an individual’s response to a perceived predation threat is indeed dependent upon both social status and food availability. When tested together or alone, the main factor influencing predator avoidance behaviour differed between social classes. Predator avoidance by dominants was determined by food availability, whereas avoidance behaviour by subordinates was determined by aggression. Thus these results support the hypothesis of context dependant predator avoidance strategies.

Patricia E. Foam, MSc (2002-2004) BSc (Concordia)
Threat-sensitive foraging trade-offs: the role of subthreshold concentrations of chemical alarm cues.

At the individual level, prey are faced with a series of trade-offs between the benefits of predator avoidance and those of a suite of other behaviour patterns. The threat-sensitivity hypothesis, however, assumes that prey show an antipredator response which is proportional or graded with perceived risk.  Previous studies examining threat sensitive responses to chemical alarm cues have provided mixed results at best. The first experiment examined the influence of subthreshold chemical cues on the threat sensitive decision of foraging posture. Juvenile convict cichlids (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus) were given a choice of head-down or head-up foraging posture, and exposed to sub-threshold or suprathreshold alarm cues.   Cichlids exposed to the subthreshold cue did not exhibit an overt antipredator response, but did significantly alter their foraging posture.  Likewise, cichlids exposed to the odour of a piscivorous predator also exhibited a similar threat-sensitive shift in foraging posture.  The second experiment examined the influence of temporal variation in predation risk on antipredator and foraging behaviour. Convict cichlids were conditioned to one of four conditioning regimes, differing in concentration and frequency of alarm cue, and subsequently exposed to conspecific alarm cue or a control. Cichlids initially condition to high frequency cues, regardless of cue concentration, increased foraging effort during ‘safe’ periods and exhibited reduced antipredator responses during ‘risky’ periods.  Together, these results suggest that juvenile cichlids do not respond to chemical cues with the quantitatively graded responses assumed by the threat-sensitivity hypothesis, but rather exhibit threat-sensitivity by making qualitative changes in antipredator and foraging behaviour.

Justin L. Golub, MSc (2002-2004) BSc (Union College)  
Environmental complexity and the ontogeny of responses to heterospecific alarm signals by centrarchid fishes.

Recent laboratory studies have demonstrated that juvenile and subadult centrarchids shift from antipredator to foraging behaviour in response to conspecific and heterospecific chemical alarm cues, and that this shift is dependent upon an individual’s perceived level of risk (i.e., a threat-sensitive trade-off between predator avoidance and foraging benefits).  Thus, factors such as habitat complexity should influence an individual’s level of perceived risk.  This study examines the potential influence of habitat complexity on conspecific and heterospecific chemical alarm cue use and attempts to provide the first large-scale field verification of alarm cue use by juvenile and subadult centrarchids.  Three focal size classes (small (< 40 mm LS), medium (40 - 80 mm LS), and large (> 80 mm LS)) of pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) were exposed to conspecific or one of three heterospecific chemical alarm cues under one of three levels of habitat complexity (low, intermediate, and high).   Under low and intermediate habitat complexities, pumpkinseeds less than 80 mm LS exhibited a significant antipredator response when exposed to the chemical alarm cues of heterospecific prey guild members (largemouth bass, Micropterus salmonides and hypoxanthine-3-N-oxide, the putative Ostariophysan alarm ‘pheromone’), while pumpkinseeds larger than 80 mm LS exhibited a foraging response.  Under highly complex habitats, pumpkinseeds of all three size classes exhibited an antipredator response.  Moreover, under all three habitat conditions, pumpkinseeds of all size classes exhibited an antipredator response to conspecific alarm cues.  There was no change in behaviour under any treatment combination in response to an allopatric heterospecific control (swordtails, Xiphophorus helleri).  These results provide the first field verification of the size dependent use of chemical alarm cues by centrarchids and demonstrate that microhabitat complexity significantly influences the threat-sensitive use of these cues.

Antoine Leduc, M.Sc. (2001-2003) BSc (Rimouski)
Laboratory and field tests of the effects of weak acidification on the chemical alarm signaling in salmonid fishes.

THESIS ABSTRACT: A variety of fishes possess damage-released chemical alarm cues, which play a critical role in the detection and avoidance of potential predation threats.  Recently, we have demonstrated that the ability of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and finescale dace (Phoxinus neogaeus) to detect and respond to conspecific alarm cues is significantly reduced under weakly acidic conditions (pH 6.0).  Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) possess an analogous alarm cue system.  It is unknown, however if the trout alarm cue system is likewise affected by relatively small changes in pH.  In addition, previous studies have not verified this phenomenon under natural conditions.  We conducted laboratory and field trials to examine the potential effects of acute exposure to weakly acidic (pH 6.0) conditions on the detection and response of conspecific alarm cues by juvenile trout.  Our laboratory results demonstrate that while juvenile rainbow trout exhibit significant increases in antipredator behaviour under normal pH conditions (pH 7.0-7.2), they do not respond to the presence of conspecific chemical alarm cues (i.e. response is not different from controls) under weakly acidic conditions.  Similarly, a wild strain of brook charr in their natural streams near Sudbury, Ontario failed to detect conspecific alarm cues in a weakly acidic stream (mean pH 6.11) while they responded to these cues in a neutral stream (mean pH of 6.88).  This is the first demonstration that relatively small changes in ambient pH can influence alarm responses under natural conditions. These data suggest significant, sub-lethal effect of acid precipitation on natural waterways.

Kerry L. Librandi, M.A.T. Union College, 200-2001. 
Contextual use of chemical versus visual cues during predator inspection visits by the glowlight tetra (Hemigrammus erythrozonus)

Jody L. Ericksen, M.A.T. Union College, 1999-2000. 
Behavioral responses to the N-O trigger are conserved within the Superorder Ostariophysi.

Lindsay E. Porter, M.A.T. Union College, 1998-1999. 
Ontogenetic niche shift and the response of largemouth bass to heterospecific alarm pheromones.

Walter T. Bowden, M.A.T. Union College, 1998-1999. 
The effects of acidification on pyridine-N-oxide to mimic alarm pheromones in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).


Undergraduate Alum

Concordia University

64. Brendan Doble (2014) Background predation risk shapes learning and retention of novel predator cues
63. Ebony Desmers (2014) Habituation of response to novel predator cues in cichlids
62. Sabine Ajamian (2014) Retention of induced neophobic predator recognition
61. Ross Bushnell (2013) Repeatability of response to acute predation threats: intra and inter-individual variability
60. Franki Alo (2013) In-situ experience and foraging patterns of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon
59. Brendan Joyce (2013) Does induced neophobia affect the strength of learned predator recognition? 
58. Ebony Desmers (2013) Ontogeny of induced neophobia in juvenile convict cichlids
57. Karolina Paquin (2012) Are neophobic responses to novel predator odours threat-sensitive?
56. Elisa Jacques (2011) Urea as a potential disturbance cue in juvenile rainbow trout.
55. Marc-Andre Couturier (2010) NSERC undergraduate fellow
54. Dale McNaught (2010) NSERC undergraduate fellow
53. Lima Kayello (2010) Shy-Bold behaivoural tactics influence learned predator recognition in juvenile rainbow trout.
52. Laura Fregeau (2010) Shy-Bold behavioural tactics influences retention of acquired predator recognition.
51. Lana Dalgova (2010) Ambient acidity and generalized predator recognition in juvenile rainbow trout.
50. Marc-Andre Coututier (2010) Urea as a possible candidate for the cichlid disturbance cue.
49. Michelle Tressider (2009) Growth rate and forgetting in juvenile rainbow trout.
48. Stephanie Russo (2009) Generalized predator recognition in juvenile rainbow trout.
47. Patrick Malka (2009) Growth rates and learning in juvenile rainbow trout: does size matter?
46. Matthew Murphy (2008) Threat-sensitive learning and retention in juvenile rainbow trout.
45. Matthew Romano (2008) Growth rates and retention of learned predator recognition in juvenile rainbow trout.
44. Christopher Jackson (2008) Response to visual predation threats in neutral and acidic conditions by juvenile Atlantic salmon.
43. Marie-Anne Oligny (2008) Retention of chemically mediated predator recognition learning in juvenile rainbow trout.
42. Jennifer Smith (2007) Weak acidification and chemically mediated predator recognition learning: laboratory tests with juvenile rainbow trout.
41. Bryan Fridman (2007) Chemically mediated predator recognition learning: do multiple cues enhance learning?
40. Robert Decaire (2007) Chemistry of disturbance cues in convict cichlids and rainbow trout.
39. Sandra Malouin (2007) Disturbance cues in juvenile convict cichlids:  effects of cue concentration.
38. Sean Bridgeman (2007) Disturbance cues in juvenile rainbow trout: effects of cue concentration.
37. Laura Ivan (2006)  Intermittent locomotion in juvenile cichlids as a threat-sensitive response to low concentrations of conspecific alarm cues.
36. Linday McGraw (2006) Assessing the effects of reduced pH on the function of salmonid alarm cues: how low is too low?
35. Brenna Belland (2006)  Disturbance cue use by juvenile convict cichlids: does cue concentration matter?.
34. Alix Rive (2005) Temporal variability in perceived predation risk influences the concentration of chemical alarm cues required to elicit an overt antipredator response.
33. Lara Slikhanian (2005)  Interaction between disturbance cues and damage-released chemical alarm cues in juvenile convict cichlids. 
32. Sevan Emmian (2005) Glowlight tetras can learn multiple predator odours when paired with a known predator odour.
31. Ellie Roh (2004) The effects of alarm cue concentration on antipredator response intensity:  does cue donor body condition influence minimum response thresholds?
30. Sabrina Plura (2004) Kin selection of chemical alarm cue production: testing for kin-biased survival benefits.  
29. Tamara Darwish (2004) What do prey learn?: testing the generality of acquired predator recognition.
28. Veronique Vermette (2004) Ontogenetic shifts in response to conspecific and heterospecific chemical alarm cues by juvenile centrarchids: field verification.
27. Jocelyn Kelly (2003) Species-specificity in Ostariophysan alarm pheromones: testing the ‘purine-ratio’ hypothesis.
26. Jean-Francois Poirier (2003) Do you smell what I see?: sub-threshold concentrations of chemical alarm cues increase vigilance visual predation cues in glowlight tetras.
25. Maud Ferrari (2003) The effects of reduced pH on acquired predator recognition by juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).
24. Hilary Cowell (2003) Are you what you eat?: The influence of diet on the production of alarm cues by juvenile convict cichlids (Archocentrus nigrofasciatus).
23. Jason Marcus (2002) The ontogeny of fear: the response of pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) to conspecific alarm cues is dependant upon age and stimulus concentration. 
22. Jae-Woo Kim (2002) Growth depensation and the effects of predation in juvenile convict cichlids.  
21. Cristina Ranellucci (2002) Differential responses to chemical alarm cues from kin and non-kin: possible kin selection of alarm cue production in convict cichlids.
20. Mark Harvey (2002) Dine or Dash?: Ontogenetic niche shifts in the response of yellow perch to conspecific alarm cues.
19. Nabil Naderi (2002) The Phylogeny of Fear: the evolutionary conservation of purine-N-oxides in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus.
18. Meghan Noseworthy (2002)  Detection of conspecific, congener and heterospecific alarm cues by pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus) under weak acidic conditions.
17. Gaelle Magnavacca (2002)  Predator inspection behaviour in glowlight tetras: an interaction between chemical and visual cues.

Union College
16. Justin L. Golub (2002) Should I stay or should I go?: contextual use of chemical alarm cues by juvenile green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus).
15. Jon Tower (2001) Increased steric bulk at the 6’ position does not inhibit functionality of hypoxanthine-3-N-oxide: confirmation of the N-O trigger in Ostariophysan alarm pheromones.
14. Natasha DeSouza (2001) Trade-off between chemical and visual cues in the assessment of local predation risk: predator size as a visual cue.
13. Victoria Dreier (2001) Predator inspection behaviour of Ostariophysan fishes:  an interaction between predator diet and prey experience.
12. Melissa Zachar (2001) Predator inspection behaviour in Ostariophysan fishes:  the effects of mixed predator diets.
11. Ilyssa Kaufmann (2000) Evolutionary conservation of Ostariophysan alarm pheromones: response of Chariciforme fishes to purine-N-oxides.
10. Devon Gershaneck (2000) Ontogenetic shifts in the response to heterospecific alarm cues by juvenile largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) are phenotypically plastic.
9.  Erica Schwarzbauer (2000) Chemical predator inspection and attack cone avoidance in a Characin fish: the effects of predator diet.
8.  Todd Patton (2000) Fathead minnows acquire the recognition of novel predators when exposed to sub-threshold concentrations of hypoxanthine-3-N-oxide.
7.  Michael G. Lewis (1999) Detection of alarm pheromones by fathead minnows and finescale dace is impaired under weakly acidic conditions.
6.  Jessica Paige (1999) Chemically-mediated predator inspection behaviour in the absence of visual predator cues.
5.  Valerie Leblanc (1999) Heterospecific responses to alarm pheromones of prey guild members.
4.  Matt Shih (1999) How low can you go?: population specific minimum behavioural response thresholds in fathead minnows.
3.  Mike Fuller (1999) Effects of weak acid rain on olfactory epithelium of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). 
2.  Erin Smyth (1998) The functional significance of nitrogen-oxides in the Ostariophysan alarm pheromone system.
1.  Jessica Pedersen (1998) Does fin-flicking function as a predator deterrent or a visual alarm signal in glowlight tetras?

Make a Free Website with Yola.